Possible Affixes-shi evidential
Related Ideophonessa, san, ton1
Definitionspreading something out, or all over a surface
Sensory ModalityMOVEMENT > Haptic
gestured with hands and intonationally foregrounded by lengthening
Transcriptiontɕajtaga apikga kaj witukwaŋga ba-ɕi ɲawitaga kakuɕka
Translation‘And so grabbing (that face) with this wituk dye, she rubbed his face baaa (all over)’
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Video 1: This example occurred during the telling of a traditional narrative to Tod Swanson, in which a brother comes to his sister at night in disguise. One night she rubs a clear vegetable juice called wituk across his face, which dries a dark, shiny black color. When she sees his face in the daylight she realizes that he has been her night visitor. The difference between ba and related ideophones sa and san is that ba depicts a spreading motion that is in contact with a surface, while sa and san depict spreading motion that may take place in mid-air, without contacting any surface.

Nuckolls, Janis and Tod Swanson. 2024. ba. The Quechua Ideophonic Dictionary. Online: