Possible Affixes-ma
Pronunciation[polaŋ, pulaŋ]
Related Ideophonesbhux, suni
Definition1.Depicts the way something rises from under water and is suddenly evident as it breaks through to the water's surface. It may focus on the duration of the upward thrusting movement, or its momentary, punctual occurrence. May also depict the rising up of a baby inside a watery womb during labor. 2.Depicts the way something floats and moves across the surface of water, either by gliding along smoothly, or by intermittently bobbing.
Sensory ModalityMOVEMENT > Configurational
It may be intonationally emphasized with lengthening or repetition, and gestured with an upward movement of one or both hands, or by an expansive movement to imitate a gliding across water..
Transcriptionbaka maɾinata ɾikungimi tɕi kutɕaj; tɕiga wagɾa ɕina polaŋ ismaɾa; ɲa wagɾa isma
Translation (After he said)'Look at the manatee in that water', well then polang it defecated; now it was manatee poop (which rose up to the water's surface)!
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Transcription jakwi tijag ajchawas kusɕijaɕa kasna polaŋ polaŋ wambuɾig maŋ
Translation Even the fish living underwater becoming happy like this (will float up to the water's surface) polang polang
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Transcription balsaga polaŋ
Translation And the balsa raft floated (upward) polang
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Transcriptionkanoaʎaɕi polaŋ riŋ
TranslationAnd only the canoe, they say,(floated upward) polang (from under the water)
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Transcription kanoaga polaŋ! tɕajbiɕi wakaɕa
Translation(when) the canoe floated upward polang (then) they say, (its passengers were) crying . . .
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Transcriptiontɕasna liŋ; aktɕaga kajta polaŋ; ɲuka mama ɲawita . . .
TranslationLike that (he dove into the water) ling and as for his hair (it was floating on the water's surface) polang; and my mother was facing (toward him)
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Transcriptionɲa uɾajta pulaŋ ɾiɾantɕi niɾa kawinaʎaŋ tawnaʎaŋ taŋgaɕa
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Transcriptiontɕi uɾku uɾku ukuta pajguna kanoanga polang ɾiɕkawna
TranslationThat hill, around that hill they went polang in the canoe
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Transcriptionaktɕaga polaŋŋŋ ɲuka ɲaβi kajwan ɾikug ani kaj jaku supajta ri-
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Transcriptiontɕiga polaŋŋŋ tsopoo
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Transcriptionpajga ʎaɕag aɕaga kaj ɾumiga mana ɾiuŋja tɕiga puskuga pajga paŋgaʎa aɕa polaŋŋŋ pajga ɾiuɾa
TranslationAs for the rock, being heavy, it's not going anywhere, but the foam, being as light as a leaf, it was going along polannn.
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Transcriptiontɕiga tɕasna // this is a snake // pulaŋ kutɕataga ɕiuuṵṵ ɾiŋ kuti tɕupa paɾtima ɕiuuṵṵ
Translation And then like that (this is a snake) pulanng and around the lake shyuuuu it goes; then the tail (goes) shyuuuu
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Transcriptiontɕigaŋ ɕimita aŋ paskakpi wawami polaŋma ɕajaɾiŋga nig ag aɾa tɕasna tukuɕa mana wajɾa ɕina ʎukɕiŋgatɕu wawa nig an. polaŋma ɕajaɾiŋga niɾa tɕi
Translation And so with that, if one opens one's mouth ang (while breathing), the baby will rise up polang, they say, and becoming like that, the baby will not come out quickly, they say; it will rise up polang.
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The use of polan in Video 13 has resulted in a revision of its first sense which used to characterize its meaning as rising within water and breaking through to the surface. However video 13 extends this meaning into a rising within a human body, of a baby within its watery womb. As usages go, this is definitely an outlier, however it illustrates something significant, pointed out by Tsujimura for Japanese, which is that the meanings of ideophones, even the most conventionalized, are underspecified by design, indeterminately flexible, and capable of infinite polysemous extensions. Such flexibility, according to Tsujimura, is what makes ideophones distinctive from the prosaic (i.e., non-ideophonic) lexicon. She also argues that mimetic verbs have a great deal more flexibility in their argument structures, than non-mimetic verbs. Tsujimura, Natsuko (2016). ‘How Flexible Should the Grammar of Mimetics Be? A View from Japanese Poetry,’ in Noriko Iwasaki, Peter Sells, and Kimi Akita (eds.), The Grammar of Japanese Mimetics: Perspectives from Structure, Acquisition and Translation. Abingdon: Routledge, 103–28. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315646695  

Nuckolls, Janis; Tod Swanson; Christina Collicott; Alexander Rice; Sydney Ludlow; Lisa Warren Carne; Austin Howard. 2024. polan. The Quechua Ideophonic Dictionary. Online: https://quechuarealwords.byu.edu/?ideophone=polan.